What is a Computer Network Topology?

KamusKami.com What is a Computer Network Topology? Halo buddy KamusKami, A network topology is an arrangement of elements of a communication network.

You can use network topology to define or describe the layout of different types of communication networks, such as command and control wireless networks, industrial fieldbuses, and computer networks.

A network topology is a network topology structure that can be physically or logically represented.

This is a graph theory application where communication devices are modeled as nodes and connections between devices are modeled as links or lines between nodes.

A physical topology is the placement of various components of a network (such as equipment locations and cable installations), and a logical topology represents the flow of data within a network.

Although the distances between nodes, physical connectivity, transmission rates, and signal types may differ across two networks, their logical topologies may be the same.

The physical layer of the OSI model is concerned with the physical topology of a network. Local area networks (LANs), a frequent computer network setup, are examples of network topologies.

Any LAN node has one or more physical linkages to other network devices; visually mapping these links yields a geometric form that may be used to explain the network’s physical architecture.

Ring, bus, mesh, and star are just a few of the physical topologies that have been employed in LANs.

The logical topology of the network is determined by mapping the data flow between the components.

In contrast, Controller Area Networks (CANs), which are ubiquitous in cars, are essentially dispersed control system networks consisting of one or more controllers coupled to sensors and actuators through a physical bus architecture.

Physical and logical topologies are the two most common types of network topologies.

The physical topology of a network refers to the transmission media structure used to connect devices. This relates to the arrangement of cabling, the placements of nodes, and the linkages between the nodes and the cabling in conductive or fiber optical media.

The capabilities of network access devices and media, the amount of control or fault tolerance sought, and the cost of cabling or telecommunication circuits all influence the physical architecture of a network.

Logical topology, on the other hand, is the way that signals interact with network media, or the way that data flows across a network from one device to the next regardless of how the devices are physically connected.

The conceptual and physical topologies of a network are not always the same. The original twisted pair Ethernet with repeater hubs, for example, was a logical bus architecture with a physical star topology.

Token Ring is a logical ring architecture that is connected from the media access unit as a physical star.

The AFDX Virtual links are represented as time-switched single-transmitter bus connections, following the safety concept of a single-transmitter bus topology formerly employed in airplanes.

Media access control systems and protocols are frequently linked to logical topologies. Some networks can modify their logical topology dynamically by changing the configuration of their routers and switches.

Types of Network Topology

1. Bus Topology

Bus Topology
Bus Topology – Example

All devices in a Bus topology share a single communication line or cable. When numerous hosts provide data at the same time, the bus topology may encounter issues.

As a result, Bus topology either employs CSMA/CD technology or identifies one host as the Bus Master to resolve the issue.

It is one of the most basic types of networking in which the failure of one device has no effect on the other devices.

However, if the common communication channel fails, all other devices will cease to function. Line terminators are present at both ends of the shared channel.

The data is delivered in just one direction, and when it reaches the far end of the line, the terminator removes it from the line.

2. Hybrid Topology

Hybrid Topology
Hybrid Topology – Example

Hybrid topology is often referred to as hybrid network. Hybrid networks are networks that mix two or more topologies in such a way that the final network does not display any of the traditional topologies.

A tree network or star-bus network, for example, is a hybrid design in which star networks are linked together using bus networks.

A tree network that is connected to another tree network, on the other hand, is still a tree network and not a different network type

When two distinct fundamental network topologies are joined, a hybrid topology is always formed.

3. Star Topology

Star Topology
Star Topology – Example

Every peripheral node (computer workstation or other peripheral) in a star topology is linked to a central node known as a hub or switch.

The hub serves as the server, while the peripherals act as the clients. To be categorized as a star network, the network does not have to look like a star, but all of the network’s peripheral nodes must be connected to one central hub. All network traffic travels via the central hub, which serves as a signal repeater.

The star topology is said to be the simplest to design and implement. One feature of the star topology is the ease with which more nodes may be added.

The hub is a single point of failure in the star topology, which is its principal shortcoming.

Furthermore, because all peripheral communication must pass via the central hub, aggregate central bandwidth constitutes a network bottleneck for large clusters.

4. Mesh Topology

What is a Computer Network Topology?
Mesh Topology – Example

A host is linked to one or more hosts in this form of topology. This topology contains hosts that are in point-to-point connection with every other host or hosts that are only in point-to-point connection with a few hosts. Mesh topology hosts also act as relays for other hosts that do not have direct point-to-point connectivity.

5. Ring Topology

What is a Computer Network Topology
Ring Topology – Example

In a ring topology, each host connects to exactly two other machines, creating a circular network structure.

When a server tries to communicate or send a message to a server that is not nearby, the data goes through all the intermediate servers.

To connect an additional server in an existing fabric, an administrator may only need one additional cable.

Failure of one server will cause the entire ring to go down. So each connection in the ring is a point of failure. There are methods that use an additional redundancy ring.

6. Tree Topology

Tree Topology
Tree Topology – Example

Also known as a hierarchical topology, this is the most common form of network topology in use today.

This topology simulates an extended star topology and inherits the properties of the bus topology. This topology divides the network into multiple layers/network layers.

Basically, in a LAN, networks are divided into three types of network devices: The lowest is the access level the computer is connected to.

The middle tier is known as the distribution tier, which acts as an intermediary between the upper and lower levels.

The highest level, known as the base level, is the central point of the network, that is, the root of the tree from which all nodes branch.

All nearby hosts are linked together through a point-to-point connection. Similarly to the Bus topology, if the root fails, the entire network suffers.

Despite the fact that it is not the only site of failure. Every link acts as a point of failure, and its failure separates the network into inaccessible segments.

7. Daisy Chain

Daisy Chain
Daisy Chain Topology – Example

This topology connects all hosts in a linear approach. All hosts, with the exception of the end hosts, are connected to just two hosts, similar to Ring topology.

This means that if the end hosts of a daisy chain are linked, the topology is a ring. A single point of failure is represented by each link in the daisy chain topology.

When a connection fails, the network is divided into two halves. Every intermediate host serves as a relay for the hosts that are closest to it.

8. Point-to-Point

Point-to-Point Topology – Example

Point-to-point networks consist of exactly two hosts (computers, switches or routers, servers) that are linked back to back using a single piece of wire.

Frequently, the receiving end of one host is linked to the sending end of another, and vice versa. If the hosts are logically connected point-to-point, there may be numerous intermediary devices.

However, the end hosts are oblivious of the underlying network and see each other as though they are directly linked.


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